The "Hubble Volume Simulations"

introduction/ lightcone-outputs/ available data/ pictures/ references/ HV page in Michigan/ Credit


The Hubble Volume Project is a joint effort of the Virgo Consortium and collaborators in U.S., Canada, U.K., and Germany. To study the formation of clusters of galaxies, filaments and void-structures, a significant fraction of the entire observable universe is modelled and simulated by employing one billion(=1000000000) mass particles. This is the largest such computer simulation ever done. The 512-processor Garching T3E parallel computer was used for this simulation, which produced almost a Terabyte of output data in some 70 hours.
This page contains informations on the Hubble Volume Simulations and also for those who are interested in the simulation data, instructions to obtain the data sets are given here. Please note that the pictures in this page are freely available with a suitable credit and reference.

Lightcone outputs

An important aspect associated with the Hubble Volume Simulations is that data are output along a light-cone so the clustering evolution is incorporated in output data (see the picture below).

A narrow wedge showing the evolution of the clustering:

Get this picture in various color combinations!

lightcone2 Red-Black
lightcone3 White-Emerald
lightcone4 An unsmoothed version of combined two wedges.

lightcone5 Deep wedge of LCDM simulation

Credit to all the light-cone pictures: Gus Evrard and Andrzej Kudlicki , ref.1

Images of cluster populations along light-cone

Coming soon!

Images of snapshots

Pic.1 This picture shows projected matter distribution in a slab of 2000 x 2000 x 20 (Mpc/h)3 taken from the snapshot (=particle positions are fixed at an instance) of tauCDM model.
If you click on the picture you get it in its original size. Watch out, it is huge.

snap snap

Credit: Colberg and Yoshida, ref.2,3

Snapshot pictures in various sizes.

Here is another representation which gives a much better impression of the clustering. There are some huge voids and superclusters!

Click here to get this picture in gzipped PS format.

Credit: Hugh Couchman, ref.3

LCDM snap2

Click here to get this picture in gzipped PS format.

Credit: Couchman and Yoshida, ref.2,3


  1. Galaxy clusters in Hubble Volume Simulations
    A.E.Evrard, T.MacFarland, H.M.P.Couchman, J.M.Colberg, N.Yoshida, S.D.M. White, A.Jenkins, C.S.Frenk, F.R.Pearce, G. Efstathiou, J.A.Peacock, and P.A.Thomas, 2002, ApJ, 573, 7
  2. The mass function of dark matter halos
    A.Jenkins, C.S.Frenk, S.D.M.White, J.M.Colberg, S.Cole, A.E.Evrard, H.M.P.Couchman, and N.Yoshida, 2001, MNRAS, 321, 372
  3. Clustering of galaxy clusters in CDM universes
    J.M.Colberg, S.D.M.White, N.Yoshida, T.MacFarland, A.Jenkins, C.S.Frenk, F.R.Pearce, A.E.Evrard, H.M.P.Couchman, G.Efstathiou, J.Peacock, P.Thomas (The Virgo Consortium), 2000, MNRAS, 319, 209

List of the available data

The following data except the cluster catalogues are very large in size and therefore it is practically impossible to download them via internet or ftp. By selecting data types and clicking "GO" you will get informations on the data such as number of pieces, size, magnetic tape format and also a detailed description of the data will be shown. Please read the description carefully and send the request as instructed.

Snapshot data
tCDM at z=0.0 (16 GB) LCDM at z=0.0 (16 GB)

Lightcone outputs : DESCRIPTION(HTML/txt)
(* = not yet available)

tCDM narrow wedge (0.5 GB) LCDM deep wedge (1.4 GB)
tCDM octant A (6.3 GB) LCDM octant A (17.1 GB)
tCDM octant B (6.3 GB) LCDM octant B (6.3 GB)
tCDM sphere A (6.3 GB) LCDM sphere A (9.2 GB)
tCDM sphere B (6.0 GB) LCDM sphere B (6.2 GB)
tCDM planar map (*) LCDM planar map (*)


Cluster catalogues (downloadbable)

  • Snapshot : By FOF algorithm with linking parameter b=0.2 for tCDM and 0.164 for LCDM, ref 2.
  • tCDM snapshot z=0.0 (36 MB) LCDM snapshot z=0.0 (42 MB)
    tCDM snapshot z=0.5 LCDM snapshot z=0.5

  • Lightcone : SO algorithm with density threshold 200, ref 1. See also DESCRIPTION(HTML/txt)
  • tCDM narrow (160 KB) LCDM deep (430 KB)
    tCDM octant A (10 MB) LCDM octant A (22 MB)
    tCDM octant B (10 MB) LCDM octant B (11 MB)
    tCDM sphere A (29 MB) LCDM sphere A (40 MB)
    tCDM sphere B (28 MB) LCDM sphere B (40 MB)

  • Others: Some data avaliable in Michigan, ref1.

  • Credit

    Here is an example of proper credit for these Hubble data. "The simulations in this paper were carried out by the Virgo Supercomputing Consortium using computer s based at the Computing Centre of the Max-Planck Society in Garching and at the Edinburgh parallel Computing Centre. The data are publicly available at

    Back to MPA/ NumCos

    Last modified: Wed Oct 31 12:20:17 MET 2001 by Virgo Administrator